Does wetland compensatory mitigation work? Mitigation has been in use as a regulatory tool for decades and for decades people have been asking this question. Not surprisingly, there are a number of different, and often conflicting, answers to this question. As with all research, the answer relies heavily upon how the researcher phrased the question; in this case how the researcher defined "success." We have put together this list of literature so that you may draw your own conclusions. Please let us know of any other studies related to this topic so that we may make this list as comprehensive as possible. Likewise if you are an author of one of these documents and would like us to post the text please send us a copy either in WordPerfect, Word, or AdobePDF format. We would like to thank Mary Kentula, Lisa Morales and Rich Sumner for providing many of these citations.
James T. Robb
Applied Science Committee Chair
Key words: wetland, mitigation, success, compliance, performance, clean water act, section 404, section 401
TOPIC PAGE DISCLAIMER
Wetland Topic Pages are meant as a member service. Please join us if you are not already a member. At this time we have not recieved permission to reproduce articles from the scholarly journals listed here. Your best bet in aquiring these articles is via interlibrary loan from your local library.
File names ending with .pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader; click here to download your free copy.
Abbruzzese, B., A. B. Allen S. Henderson, and M. E. Kentula. 1987. Selecting Sites For Comparison With Created Wetlands. Pages 291-297 in C. D. A. Rubec and R. P. Overend, eds. Proceedings of Symposium '87--Wetlands/Peatlands. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Allen, Aaron O. 1996. Wetland Loss and Substitution by the Section 404 Permit Program in Southern California, USA. Environmental Management, 20(2): 263-274.
Ammann, Alan and Amanda Stone. 1991. Method for the Comparative Evaluation of Nontidal Wetlands in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. March 1991. R-WRD-91-3. http://www.des.state.nh.us/desguid.htm
Azevedo, Margaret. 2000. Wetlands Mitigation: Reflections on a Hazardous Road. California Coast & Ocean, 15(4). http://www.coastalconservancy.ca.gov/coast&ocean/winter2000/pages/pthr.htm
Balzano, Steven, Ann Ertman, Lee Brancheau, William Smejkal, Amy S. Greene, Marjorie Kaplan, David Fanz. 2002. Creating Indicators of Wetland Status (Quantity and Quality): Freshwater Wetland Mitigation in New Jersey. NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science, REsearch, & Technology. http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/wetlands/final.pdf
Bartha, Robert and Alan Pendleton. 1987. Mitigation: A Good Tool That Needs Sharpening. California Waterfront Age, 3(2): 15-17. http://www.aswm.org/mitigation/bartha87.pdf
Bedford, Barbara L. 1996. The Need to Define Hydrologic Equivalence at the Landscape Scale for Freshwater Wetland Mitigation. Ecological Applications 6(1):57-68.
Bernstein, Giselle and Robert L. Zepp, Jr. 1990. Evaluation of Selected Wetland Creation Projects Authorized Through the Corps of Engineers Section 404 Program. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Permits/Licenses Branch. Annapolis Field Office. Annapolis, MD. September 1990.
Brinson, M. M., W. L. Nutter, R. Rheinhardt, and B. Pruitt. 1996. Background and Recommendations for Establishing Reference Wetlands in the Piedmont of the Carolinas and Georgia. Pages 57. United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR.
Brinson, M. M., and R. Rheinhardt. 1996. The role of reference wetlands in functional assessment and mitigation. Ecological Applications 6: 69-76.
Brown, M. T. 1991. Evaluating created wetlands through comparisons with natural wetlands. Pages 37. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR.
Brown, Stephen and Peter Veneman. 1998. Compensatory Wetland Mitigation in Massachussetts. Massachussetts Ag Experiment Station, University of Massachusetts.
Campbell, Deborah A., Charles Andrew Cole, and Robert P. Brooks. A Comparison of Created and Natural Wetlands in Pennsylvania, USA.
Campbell, Deborah A., Charles Andrew Cole, and Robert P. Brooks. Spatial Patterns and Soil/Vegetation Correspondence in Created and Natural Reference Wetlands.
Cole, Charles Andrew and Robert P. Brooks. A Comparison of the Hydrologic Characteristics of Natural and Created Mainstem Floodplain Wetlands in Pennsylvania. Ecological Engineering, 14 (2000): 221 - 231.
Cole, Charles Andrew, Robert P. Brooks, and Denice Heller Wardrop. Building a Better Wetland - A Response to Linda Zug. Wetland Journal, 10(2): 8 - 12.
Cole, Charles Andrew. 1997. Study Raises Questions About Use of Restored Mangroves by Birds, Suggests Value of Organic Soil Amendments (Florida). Restoration and Management Notes, 15(2): 190 - 191.
Confer, S. R. 1990. Comparison of created and natural freshwater palustrine-emergent wetlands in Connecticut. Connecticut College New London, Connecticut. 202 pp.
Confer, Sheri R. and William A. Niering. 1992. Comparison of Created and Natural Freshwater Emergent Wetlands in Connecticut (USA). Wetlands Ecology and Management, 2:143-156.
Crewz, David W. and Roy R. Lewis III. 1991. An Evaluation of Historical Attempts to Establish Emergent Vegetation in Marine Wetlands in Florida. Florida Sea Grant Technical Paper. TP-60. Florida Sea Grant College, University of Florida. Gainsesville, FL.
Delaney, Tim P., James W. Webb and Thomas J. Minello. 2000. Comparison of Physical Characteristics Between Created and Natural Estuarine Marshes in Galveston Bay, Texas. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 8: 343-352.
DeWeese, June. 1994. An Evaluation of Selected Wetland Creation Projects Authorized Through the Corps of Engineers Section 404 Program. US Fish and Wildlife Service. May 1994.
Eggers, Steve D. 1991. Compensatory Wetland Mitigation: Some Problems and Suggestions for Corrective Measures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District.
Eliot, Windy. 1985. Implementing Mitigation Policies in San Francisco Bay: A Critique. California State Coastal Conservancy. Oakland, CA. February 1985.
Erwin, Kevin L. 1991. An Evaluation of Wetland Mitigation in the South Florida Water Management District. Vol. 1. Contract #C89-0082-A1. http://www.aswm.org/science/mitigation/erwin91.pdf - [WARNING: this file is 5 MB]
Erwin, Kevin L. 1991. An Evaluation of Wetland Mitigation in the South Florida Water Management District. Vol. 2. Contract #C89-0082-A1.
Fennessy, Siobhan and Joanne Roehrs. 1997. A Functional Assessment of Mitigation Wetlands in Ohio. Comparisons with Natural Systems. State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Final Report to the USEPA. June 1997.
Gallihugh, Jeanette L. 1998. Wetland Mitigation and 404 Permit Compliance. Vol. 1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Chicago, IL. June 1998. http://www.aswm.org/science/mitigation/gall98.pdf [WARNING: this file is 26 MB]
Gallihugh, Jeanette L. 1998. Wetland Mitigation and 404 Permit Compliance. Vol. 2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Chicago, IL. June 1998. http://www.aswm.org/science/mitigation/gallihugh98.pdf [WARNING: this file is 10 MB]
Good, James. W. 1987. Mitigating Estuarine Development Impacts in the Pacific Northwest: From Concept to Practice. Northwest Environmental Journal, 3(1): 93-111.
Gwin, Stephanie E. and Mary E. Kentula. 1990. Evaluating Design and Verifying Compliance of Wetlands Created Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act in Oregon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon. 122 pp.
Gwin, Stephanie E., Mary E. Kentula., and Donna L. Frostholm. 1991. Evaluating Design and Verifying Compliance of Created Wetlands in the Vicinity of Tampa, Florida. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Corvallis, Oregon. 107 pp.
Gwin, Stephanie E., Mary E. Kentula, and Paul W. Shaffer. 1999. Evaluating the Effects of Wetland Regulation Through Hydrogeomorphic Classification and Landscape Profiles. Wetlands 19(3):477-489.
Harvey, H. Thomas and Michael N. Josselyn. 1986. Wetland Restoration and Mitigation Policies: Comment. Environmental Management, 10(5): 567-569.
Holland, Cindy C. and Mary E. Kentula. 1992. Impacts of Section 404 Permits Requiring Compensatory Mitigation on Wetlands in California (USA). Wetlands Ecology and Management 2(3):157-169.
Jackson, Janet M. 1990. The Status of Nontidal, Freshwater Wetlands Creation, Restoration, and Enhancement in the United States; Mitigation Effectiveness: Recap of the existing Literature. Prepared for USEPA. Desert Research Institute. Reno, NV.
Johnson, Patricia A., Dana L. Mock, Emily J. Teachout, and Andy McMillan. 2000. Washington State Wetland Mitigation Evaluation Study. Phase 1: Compliance. Washington State Department of Ecology. June 2000. Publication No. 00-06-016. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/0006016.html
Jones, R. Harold and Milton Boyd. 2000. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Within Watershed Compensation in Response to Permitted Activites Through the Norfolk District's Section 404 Regulatory Program. Wetland Journal, 12(3):17-22.
Kentula, M. E. 1986. Wetland rehabilitation and creation in the Pacific Northwest. Pages 119-128 in R. Strickland, ed. Wetland functions, rehabilitation, and creation in the Pacific Northwest: the state of our understanding. Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA.
Kentula, M. E. 1989. Wetland creation And restoration: EPA's research program and investigation of an extensive sampling approach to comparing created and natural wetlands. Pages 304-310. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting. Society for Ecological Restoration, Oakland, CA.
Kentula, M. E. 1993. An approach to improving decision making in wetland restoration and creation. Pages 121-124 in M. Martz, J. Andrea, K. Kunz, C. Simenstad, and F. Weinman, eds. Partnerships and Opportunities in Wetland Restoration--Proceedings of a Workshop. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA.
Kentula, M. E. 1994. Establishing quatitative performance criteria for wetland restoration. Pages 137-138 in T. T. Institute, ed. Symposium on Ecological Restoration. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
Kentula, M. E. 1994. The status of restoration science--wetlands ecosystems. Pages 21-23 in T. T. Institute, ed. Symposium on Ecological Restoration. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
Kentula, M. E. 1995. Establishing quantitative performance criteria for wetland restoration and creation. Pages 111-116 in R. R. Harris, R. Kattelmann, H. Kerner, and J. Woled, eds. Watersheds '94--Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Conference of the Watershed Management Council. Water Resources Center, Report #86, Berkeley, CA.
Kentula, M. E. 1996. Wetland restoration and creation. Pages 87-92 in J. D. Fretwell, J. S. Williams, and P. J. Redman, eds. The National Water Summary on Wetland Resources. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
Kentula, M. E., R. P. Brooks, S. E. Gwin, C. C. Holland, A. Sherman, and J. C. Sifneos. 1992. An approach to improving decision making in wetland restoration and creation. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Kentula, Mary E. and Magee, Teresa K. 1999. Forward. Wetlands 19(3):475-476
Kentula, Mary E., Jean C. Sifneos, James W. Good, Michael Rylko, and Kathy Kunz. 1992. Trends and Patterns in Section 404 Permitting Requiring Compensatory Mitigation in Oregon and Washington, USA. Environmental Management 16:109-199.
King, Dennis M. and Curtis C. Bohlen. 1994. Estimating the Costs of Restoration. National Wetlands Newsletter, 16(3) pp. 3-8.
Kline, Norma L. 1991. Palustrine Wetland Creation Mitigation Effectiveness. Prepared for USEPA Region 3. Gannett Fleming, Inc. Camp Hill, PA.
Kistner, D. H., D. G. Alexander, and H. R. Jacobson. 1995. Vernal Pool Creation and Restoration In California: A Study Plan for Evaluation Attainable Quality and Functional Performance. Pages 82. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR.
Kunz, Kathleen, Michael Rylko, and Elaine Somers. 1988. An Assessment of Wetland Mitigation Practices in Washington State. National Wetlands Newletter 10: 2-4.
Kusler, Jon A., and Mary E. Kentula. Eds. 1989. Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Vol. 1. EPA/600/3-89/038. (also can be purchased in our online bookstore)
Kusler, Jon A., and Mary E. Kentula. Eds. 1989. Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Vol. 2. EPA/600/3-89/038. (also can be purchased in our online bookstore)
Lewis, Roy R. 1992. Why Florida Needs Mitigation Banking. National Wetlands Newsletter, 4(1).
Magee, Teresa K., Ted L.Ernst, Mary E. Kentula, Kathleen A. Dwire. 1999. Floristic Comparison of Freshwater Wetlands in an Urbanizing Environment. Wetlands 19(3):517-534.
Magee, Teresa K., Stephanie E. Gwin, Robert G. Gibson, Cindy C. Holland, JoEllen Honea, Paul W. Shaffer, Jean C. Sifneos, and Mary E. Kentula. 1993. Research Plan & Methods Manual for the Oregon Wetlands Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon. 172 pp.
McCoy, Richard W. 1992. An Evaluation of 30 Wetland Mitigation Sites Constructed by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Between 1983 and 1990. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pennsylvania Field Office. Special Report 92-3. State College PA.
Mitsch, William J. and Renee F. Wilson. 1996. Improving the Success of Wetland Creation and Restoration with Know-How, Time, and Self-Design. Ecological Applications, 6(1): 77-83.
Morgan, Kenneth L. and Thomas H. Roberts. 1999. An Assessment of Wetland Mitigation in Tennessee. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. 84 pp. http://www.aswm.org/science/mitigation/morgan99.pdf
Memorandum for Commanders, Major Subordinate Commands and District Commands: Subject: Program Consistency and Reporting on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Regulatory Program. April 8, 1999. Signed by Major General Russell L. Fuhrman
Memorandum of Agreement Between the Department of the Army and the Environmental Protection Agency Concerning Federal Enforcement For the Section 404 Program of the Clean Water Act. 19 January 1989.
Mockler, Anna, Laura Casey, Mason Bowles, Nick Gillen, and Jon Hansen. 1998. Results of Monitoring King County Wetland and Stream Mitigations. King County Department of Development and Environmental Services.http://www.aswm.org/mitigation/mockler98.pdf
Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability. 2000. Policy Review. Wetland Mitigation. Department of Environmental Protection and the Water Mangement Districts. Office of the Florida Legislature. Report No. 9940. March 2000. http://www.aswm.org/mitigation/oppaga2000.pdf
Pfeifer, Christopher Eric and Edward J. Kaiser. 1995. An Evaluation of Wetlands Permitting and Mitigation Practices in North Carolina. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina.
Porej, Deni. 2003. An inventory of Ohio wetland compensatory mitigation. Final Report to U.S. EPA Grant No. CD97576201-0. Wetland Ecology Group, Division of Surface Water, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 25 pp.
Quammen, Millicent L. 1986. Measuring the Success of Wetlands Mitigation. National Wetlands Newsletter, 8(5): 6-8. October 1986.
Race, Margaret S. 1985. Critique of Present Wetlands Mitigation Policies in the United States Based on an Analysis of Past Restoration Projects in San Francisco Bay. Environmental Management, 9(1) pp. 71-82.
Race, Margaret S. 1986. Wetlands Restoration and Mitigation Policies: Reply. Environmental Management, 10(5): 571-572.
Race, Margaret S. and Donna R. Christie. 1982. Coastal Zone Development: Mitigation, Marsh Creation and Decision-Making. Environmental Management, 6(4):317-328.
Race, Margaret S. and Mark S. Fonseca. 1996. Fixing Compensatory Mitigation: What Will It Take? Ecological Applications, 6(1) pp. 94-101.
Redmond, Ann. 1992. How Successful is Mitigation? National Wetlands Newsletter, 14(1): 5-6. February 1992.
Reimold, Robert J., and Sue A. Cobler. 1986. Wetland Mitigation Effectiveness. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Region I. USEPA contract no. 68-04-0015.
Robb, James T. 2000. Indiana Wetland Compensatory Mitigation: Inventory. Indiana Department of Environmental Management. May 2000. EPA grant # CD985482-010-0. http://www.ai.org/idem/owm/planbr/401/401home.html
Robb, James T. 2002. Assessing wetland compensatory mitigation sites to aid in establishing mitigation ratios." Wetlands 22(2).
Roberts, Leslie. 1993. Wetlands Trading is a Loser's Game, Say Ecologists. Science, 260(5116): 1890-1892. 25 June 1993.
Rylko, Michael S. 1991. Whither Compensation? Using No-Net Loss of Wetlands as the Basis for Evaluating the Compensatory Mitigation Process Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act: A Case Study of Washington State. University of Washington. Thesis.
Rylko, Michael and Linda Storm. 1991. How Much Wetland Mitigation Are We Really Requiring? Or Is No Net Loss a Reality. In proceedings, Second Annual Meeting on Puget Sound Research.
Shaffer, Paul W. and Ted L. Ernst. 1999. Distribution of Soil Organic Matter in Freshwater Emergent/Open Water Wetlands in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area. Wetlands 19(3):505-516.
Shaffer, Paul W., Mary E. Kentula, and Shephanie E. Gwin. 1999. Characterization of Wetland Hydrology Using Hydrogeomorphic Classification. Wetlands 19(3):490-504.
Shaich, Joel A. and Kennith T. Franklin. 1995. Wetland Compensatory Mitigation in Oregon: A Program Evaluation with a Focus on Portland Metro Area Projects. Oregon Division of State Lands. 51 pp.
Sibbing, Julie M. 1997. Mitigation's Role in Wetland Loss. National Wetlands Newsletter, 19(1).
Sifneos, Jean C., Edwin W. Cake Jr., and Mary E. Kentula. 1992. Effects of Section 404 Permitting on Freshwater Wetlands in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. Wetlands 12: 28-36.
Sifneos, Jean C., Donna Frostholm, and Mary E. Kentula. November 1991. A Pilot Study to Compare Created and Natural Wetlands in Western Washington and Evaluate Methods. US Environmental Protection Agency. 44 pp
Sifneos, Jean C., Mary E. Kentula, and Paul Price. 1992. Impacts of Section 404 Permits Requiring Compensatory Mitigation of Freshwater Wetlands in Texas and Arkansas. The Texas Journal of Science 44(4):475-485.
Storm, Linda and Joanne Stellini. May 1994. Interagency Follow-Through Investigation of Compensatory Wetland Mitigation Sites, Joint Agency Staff Report. US Environmental Protection Agency and US Fish and Wildlife Service. 70 pp
Sudol, Mark F. 1996. Success of Riparian Mitigation as Compensation for Impacts Due to Permits Issued Through Section 404 of the Clean Water Act in Orange County, California. Dissertation for Doctor of Environmental Science and Engineering. University of California, Los Angeles. 215 pp.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District response to Government Accounting Office's Congressional Audit and Evaluation on Wetland In-Lieu-Fee Mitigation. September 17, 2000, to Byron Galloway, US GAO from Bruce F. Williams, Acting Chief, Regulatory Branch.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Region V and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-Region III. 1998. Wetland Mitigation and 404 Permit Compliance Study.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region One. 1994. An Evaluation of Selected Wetland Creation Projects Authorized Through the Corps of Engineers Section 404 Program.
Wilson, Renee F. and William J. Mitsch. 1996. Functional Assessment of Five Wetlands Constructed to Mitigate Wetland Loss in Ohio, USA. Wetlands, 16(4) pp. 436-451.
Zedler, Joy. 1987. Mitigation Problems on the Southern California Coast. California Waterfront Age, 3(1): 32-36. http://www.aswm.org/mitigation/zedler87.pdf
Zedler, Joy. 1996. Coastal Mitigation in Southern California: The Need for a Regional Restoration Strategy. Ecological Applications, 6(1): 84-93.